کتابداران

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مطالب درس تکنولوژی اطلاعات خانم دکتر پاک دامن

 

Information:

any resource such as a document, book, or other format required by the    researcher that informs, and ontributes to extending their knowledge

Technology:

Technology is a broad concept that deals with the usage and knowledge of tools and crafts

Introduction to Information Technology

What is Information Technology (IT) or Information System (IS)?

is a computerized system that processes data (facts) and produces information. This process is defined as an information processing cycle (IPC).

The information processing cycle consists of four operations:

   - input

   - process

   - output

   - storage

           IT is also defined as the  development, installation, and implementation of computer systems and applications.

Components of Information technology

1- Computers

2- Softwares

3- Data

2- Workstations (Client Servers)

3- Servers

4- Operating Systems (Platforms)

5- Netwworks

6- Telecommunications

7- Trained personnel,

8-  Procedures.

Computers:

Components of Information technology:
Computers:

Computers (hardware) can be classified into five categories:

 

Microcomputers (Personal Computers (PC))

Midrange Computers (or Minicomputers)

Mainframe Computers

Supercomputers

Servers

Computers:

Personal Computers (Microcomputers) PC:

-Nonportable: (Tower, Desktop)

-  Portable computers: (laptop, notebook, subnotebook, and penbased [handheld, PDA )

Computers:

Personal Computers (Microcomputers) PC:

-IBM compatible system
-Apple system

These two systems use different platforms (operating systems) to control the hardware.

Computers:

Personal Computers (Microcomputers) PC:

IBM Compatible uses Windows operating system developed by Microsoft.

 The Windows operating system provides a graphical user interface (GUI)and a multitasking environment. The Windows operating system—including Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows XP workstation

Computers:

Personal Computers (Microcomputers) PC:

IBM compatible system and Apple system

use different platforms (operating systems)

to control the hardware.

-

Computers:

Personal Computers (Microcomputers) PC:

Apple Macintosh uses a totally different operating system developed by Apple Computer.

  Newer Apple operating systems are able to run Windows-based applications.

Mainframe Computer

Midrange Computer

Microcomputer or PCs

Computer Hardwres: Outside

Computer Hardwares: Inside

Computer Accessories:

Disks

Backup Tapes

Printers (Laser, Inkjet, Dot matrix/impact)

Modem

Network Cards

Trackball

Light pen

Touch screen

Joystick

Scanner

Digital Camera

Microphone

Sound Cards

Speakers

Computer input and output devices:

Computer Peripherals

Computer Memory and Storage

RAM (Random Acees Memory

ROM (Read Only Memory)

Hard Disks

Formatting a Disk

Computer Bytes and Bits:

Computer Bytes and Bits:

Computer memory sizes

Workstations

All of the user computers connected to a network are called workstations. A typical workstation is a computer that is configured with a network interface card, networking software, and the appropriate cables. Workstations do not necessarily need floppy disk drives because files can be saved on the file server. Almost any computer can serve as a network workstation.

Computers:

SUPERCOMPUTERS:

A large, expensive computer that does one thing (or few things) really quickly, like weather forecasting, or running a nuclear power plant.

Computers:

Servers:

Computers

Computers:

Types of Servers:

-
-File Server
-Web Server
-Mail Server
-FTP Server
-

Computers:

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA):

Any small mobile hand held device that provides computing and information storage and retrieval for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. Most PDAs have a small keyboard. Some have an electronically sensitive pad you can write on with a special pen.

Softwares:

System Softwares:

The Operating System (OS),

Utility programs,

Language processors.

Application Softwares:

to prepare a document,

to design a financial worksheet,

or to create a useful database.

Operating Systems (OS):

PCS:

-DOS
-Windows 95
-Windows 98
-Windows ME
-Windows XP
-Windows Vista

Operating Systems (OS):

Network Operating Systems:

-Windows NT
-Windows 2000 Server
-Windows 2003 Server
-Windows 2008 Server
-UNIX
-LINUX (red hat)
-HP-UX
-SOLARIS
-Novell Netware
-
-

Operating Systems (OS):

Network Operating Systems:

-UNIX (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service)

There are three layers to UNIX:

 Kernel

 Shell

 Application

-

-

Operating Systems (OS):

Network Operating Systems:

 LINUX:

Based on UNIX, open source code,

The most widely known editions of Linux are Red Hat Advanced Server and Advanced Workstation.

-

-

Networks & System Architecture

-

-

Types of Networks:

-LAN – Local Area Network
-WAN Wide Area Network
-MAN Metropolitan Area
-SAN Storage Area Network

- WLAN Wireless Local Area Network is

Types of Networks:

A Local Area Network (LAN):

 is a network that is confined to a relatively small area. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building. Rarely are LAN computers more than a mile apart.

Types of Networks:

Wide Area Networks (WANs):

 connect larger geographic areas, such as Florida, the United States, or the world. Dedicated transoceanic cabling or satellite uplinks may be used to connect this type of network.

Types of Networks:

-MAN:

Short for Metropolitan Area Network, a data network designed for a town or city. In terms of geographic breadth, MANs are larger than local-area networks (LANs), but smaller than wide-area networks (WANs). MANs are usually characterized by very high-speed connections using fiber optical cable or other digital media.

Types of Networks:

-SAN Storage Area Network:

SAN is a high-speed subnetwork of shared storage devices that is attached to servers on a LAN or WAN and interconnects different data storage devices with associated data servers for a large network.

SANs support disk mirroring, backup and restore, archival and retrieval of archived data, data migration from one storage device to another, and the sharing of data among different servers in a network.

-

Types of Networks:

- WLAN Wireless Local Area Network

Network Topolgy

 - Physical Topology

 - Logical Topology

Network Topolgy

 - Physical Topology:

Linear Bus

Ring

STAR

 

Network Topolgy

 - Logical Topology:

Peer to Peer

Client / Server

Network Protocols:

TCP/IP (Transaction Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – A transaction standard used in software for communications.

•  FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – Transfers files between local and remote computers.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – Exchanges information over the Web.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – Transfers mail from e-mail servers to a client computer.

Network Protocols:

•  SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) – Provides secure data transfer over the internet.

•  DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – A method to bring high bandwidth information over existing telephone lines.

•  Telnet (Telecommunication Network) – Permits users logged on to one host to log on to another host.

•  FIREWALL – A network security system used to block certain kinds of internet traffic.

•  ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – A standard communications network used instead of analog or modems. It integrates data and digital signals.

Databases:

Common Databases:

 ACCESS

 DB2

 SYBASE

 ORACLE

 SQL SERVER

 INFORMIX

 FOCUS

 IDMS/DB

 IMS/DB

 ABADAS

 Data Warehouse

Program Languages

• COBOL

• FORTRAN FOCUS

• NATURAL

• SQL

• C

• C++

• C#

• JAVA

• ASSEMBLER

• RPG

• POWERBUILDER

• VISUAL BASIC

• VB SCRIPT

• HTML

• XML

• PERL

• ACTIVEX

IT Security

There are five key areas to computer security:

Prevention – The implementation of safeguards to a system such as cryptography and firewalls

Detection – A system of actions that take place after the preventative measures have taken place such as anti-virus and anti-spam

Risk Avoidance – Asking the hard questions up front about what type of security needs to be in place such as restrictive access to internet connections, or standardizing desktop configurations, etc.

Deterrence – Implementing strategies to reduce the threat of intrusion through various vehicles that threaten hackers or non-authorized access and use

Recovery – The ability to backup and restore full systems and applications from scratch using SANs (Storage Area Network)

The Internet

Various Communications or Services of the Internat:

-eMail
-Gopher
-Telnet
-WWW
-FTP
-

Components of Access to the Internet

-Computer
-Type of Connection: MODEM, LAN, ISDN, SDL, ASDL
-Browsers:

       Microsoft Explorere (IE),

       Netscape,

       FireFox,

       Opera,

     

Web Design

Webmasters are responsible for all technical aspects of a Web site, including performance issues such as speed of access, and for approving site content.

-

Internet Developers or Web Developers, also called Web Designers, are responsible for day-to-day site design and creation.

-

Telecommunications

Use of:

telephone,

facsimile,

and data/video transmission.

Telecommunications

Telecommunications

Telephony Networks:

A PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)

POTS (Plain Old Telephone System)

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

Telecommunications

Telecommunications

Telecommunications

IT Job Titles/Skill Sets

Business Analyst

Database Administrator - Database Analyst –   Architect

Data Warehouse Administrator

LAN/WAN

Project Manager

Tester - Test Engineer - Quality Assurance or  Control (QA/QC)

Software Engineer - Systems Engineer – programmer/Analyst - Developer

Systems Programmer – Systems Software Specialist

Help Desk Manager

Technical Writer – Documentation Specialist

Security Administrator – Security Analyst

Trainer – Instructional Design

Telecom Engineer

Systems Engineer

Network Engineer – Network Administrator – Systems Administrator

Director of Information Systems – Information Technology

EDI Analyst

Internet Development – Webmaster – Web Design

Data:

(1) Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way. All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data. Data can exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person's mind.

     Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of information. In practice, however, people use data as both the singular and plural form of the word.

Data: Cont.

(2) The term data is often used to distinguish binary machine-readable information from textual human-readable information. For example, some applications make a distinction between data files (files that contain binary data) and text files (files that contain ASCII data).

Data: Cont.

(3) In database management systems, data files are the files that store the database information, whereas other files, such as index files and data dictionaries, store administrative information, known as metadata.

Procedures:

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